ࡱ> '` Rbjbj"9"9?@S@SKmFh: P  b(b(b(8(L( 4[f))"))*2 7>A_ZaZaZaZaZaZaZ$\h_ZiL02MUNLZ**Z+V+V+VN**_Z+VL_Z+V+V<J+V*) 9;*sb(sS+VKV[04[+V_U_+V_ D+V CRE+VGTHCCCZZUdCCC4[LLLL b( b(  Promoting Dynamic Interplay between Study and Research in ELT Practice Wu Benhu Tutor: Professor Chen Changyi 1. Introduction Study and research are two of the most confusing terms used in educational settings because they can sometimes use quite interchangeably while on other occasions they may refer to something remarkably different. When we say, Were doing a study into how much time middle school students spend learning English, we mean that we are doing research into this issue. However, in the sentence After six years of study in school, he successfully entered Zhejiang University at the age of 17, the study used here is generally not interpreted as research. Nowadays, it is reasonably acceptable to say that students can not only study but also research. Researchers need to study in the course of research. To be teachers, they should do some research while continuing their study of what they are teaching in further education. In order to promote English language teaching (ELT) in schools and colleges in China, this paper will first discuss the role of research in the acquisition of knowledge, then examine the kinds of study, and finally explore the dynamic interaction between study and research in terms of educational theory and practice in ELT settings. 2. Three sources of knowledge  Research is one of the three major means for human beings to acquire knowledge of the environment including the natural world and our human society. The other two are experience and reasoning(Cohen and Manion 1). The role of research in the acquisition of human knowledge can hardly be understood fully without being studied in connection to that of experience and reasoning. For the purpose of achieving a better understanding of research, the role of experience and reasoning will be considered before that of research. 2.1 Experience Experience is a kind of development of personal knowledge of the world. It is regarded as an individually accumulated body of knowledge (Cohen and Manion 1). In a problem-solving situation, people tend to resort to personal experience first. However, where solutions to problems clearly lie beyond this body of personal experience, it is often helpless to resort to personal experience. In the case of foreign language learning, the learners native language often interferes with or facilitates the learning of the target language. This can be considered as a clear indication of the learners reliance on the personal experience in his or her first language. It is arguable that the personal experience is by no means reliable although it is sometimes helpful because it cannot guarantee smooth progress and success in foreign language learning. As for English language teaching, our experience of English examinations can be resorted to when we help our students prepare for the college entrance examination of English. However, it is difficult for us to resort to our previous personal experience when we are facing the problem of how to motivate middle school students in communicative language teaching as many of them can hardly see any chance to communicate directly with native speakers of English. 2.2 Reasoning Reasoning is the act of forming conclusions, judgements or inferences by thinking in a logical manner. There are two basic types of reasoning: one is inductive reasoning and the other is deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning begins with observations and evidence of empirical regularities or empirical relationships (Howard 8). This is a mental process from a number of specific cases to a general idea underlying the When a learner of English comes across expressions such as three books, many ships, two minutes, he or she may form a hypothesis that -s is used to indicate the idea of two or more. It is not difficult to see that inductive reasoning in foreign language learning often leads to hypothesis formation. Deductive reasoning begins with basic beliefs, theories, assumptions, propositions, and so on, the validity of which is assumed and untested (Howard 8). This is a mental activity from a general idea to specific cases. In foreign language learning, if we learn a grammatical rule or a word-formation rule first, then we apply it to make a sentence or to coin a new word. For example, according to the English word-formation rule that the prefix un- and an adjective may combine to form another adjective with negative or opposite force in it: un- and happy go together to form unhappy with the meaning of not happy. There is an obvious limitation in reasoning as an activity. According to Cohen and Manion, it [reasoning] was no longer related to observation and experience and became merely a mental exercise (3). That is to say, the credibility of reasoning, whether inductive or deductive, will be questionable once reasoning is not connected to the reality. Now consider the hypothesis that -s used with a countable noun indicates the idea of two or more again. As noted by Quirk and his co-authors, unlike some languages where plural implies two or more, English makes the division after more than one: one half day, one day But: one and a half days, two days, one or two days (297). Here, it is clear that reasoning itself cannot guarantee its self-correction. Similarly, the application of the word-formation rule in the previous paragraph cannot prevent learners from making unacceptable adjectives such as *unhonest, *unactive. When such errors occur, they are considered as cases of overgeneralization reflecting the limitation of inductive reasoning. Although reasoning has its weaknesses, its contributions to the human knowledge are enormous. As Cohen and Manion state, the role of reasoning in the acquisition of human knowledge is threefold: 1) the suggestion of hypotheses; 2) the logical development of these hypotheses; and 3) the clarification and interpretation of scientific findings and their synthesis into a conceptual framework (4). The implication of their remarks hints that reasoning not only directs but also constructs the development of human knowledge, including our knowledge of language and language learning and teaching. 2.3 Research Research can be defined from different perspectives. From the view of information processing, research refers to the process of obtaining and analysing information (Hitchcock and Hughes 5). Considering its design features, research has been defined by Kerlinger as the systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena (Cohen and Manion 4). Cohen and Manion elaborate the three advantages of research in comparison to experience and reasoning: First, research is systematic and controlled because its operations are based on reasoning whereas experience cannot be systematic and self-correcting because of its haphazard manner in dealing with a proble Second, research is empirical because it resorts to experience for validation whereas reasoning is not empirical because of its subjective nature. Third, only research is self-corrective. This self-corrective functioning is guaranteed in two ways. On the one hand, the scientific method of research has built-in mechanisms to protect researchers from error. On the other hand, the researchers procedures and results are open to public examination by fellow professionals (Cohen and Manion 4). (See Table 1) Cohen and Manions elaboration reveals that research combines the strengths of both experience and reasoning while avoiding their weaknesses. Therefore, research can be regarded as the most powerful means to acquire new knowledge. It is beneficial for both teachers and students to integrate research into their study and teaching of English. Table 1. A Comparison between Experience, Reasoning and Research ExperienceReasoningResearchSystematic and controlled""Empirical""Self-correcting" When we combine experience and reasoning through research, we can reflect on experience to form hypotheses through reasoning and, at the same time, obtain empirical evidence through experience to test and modify the hypotheses derived from reasoning. For example, when a learner first resorts to inductive reasoning to form the hypothesis that -s indicates the idea of two or more. Later, the learner may happen to produce output such as *one and a half hour through deductive reasoning on the basis of the existing hypothesis and get the corrective feedback from the teacher. With such feedback as negative empirical evidence, he or she would modify the existing hypothesis to reach the conclusion that English makes the division after more than one (Quirk et al. 297). 3. Four types of study In a generally accepted sense, study refers to the mental activities in acquiring knowledge. According to The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, study means application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation, or reflection (Study, def. 1888). From this definition, we can identify two kinds of study: one is receptive study mainly through reading and the other is critical study through investigation or reflection. More types of study can be recognised when we make reference to different educational theoretical sources. Productive study is proposed here to develop the educational idea Use what you have just read to learn what you have just read (Biehler and Snowman 438). Creative study can be a potential direction in education when we accept Sternberg and Williamss advice You can learn and teach creative thinking and develop creativity in yourself, in your students, and in your colleagues and staff members (1). In this section, these ideas will be tentatively developed in the ELT context. 3.1 Receptive study Receptive study occurs when you receive information from the outside world. In the case of foreign language learning, successful receptive study is expected to be based on Krashens more comprehensible input (39) and Ausubels meaningful reception learning (Hohn 224). Here, meaningful communication is the key to success. In receptive study, you select and take in what is new and meaningful to you. 3.2 Productive study Productive study occurs when you use what you have learned. This is more demanding because it results from your recalling what you have learned. For example, if you want to retell a story in English, you have to memorise enough words and sentence patterns as well as the plot of the story. In receptive study, you may try some informed wise guesses with the help of the context of communication. However, guessing techniques are of little use in language production. In foreign language learning, there is a kind of special production for memorisation rather than for communication: it occurs when you recite a new text by repeating it again and again silently or aloud to yourself or when you write it for several times. Productive study can help learners consolidate the knowledge of the target language and develop fluency and accuracy. However, it is not very helpful for the development of learners analytical skills and creative potentials if the learners are satisfied with such reproductive fluency and accuracy. In the classrooms of many middle schools, it is not difficult to see a student flip through the pages to find out the answer to the teachers question and read it aloud. Table 2 Comparing the Components of Study Plans between Successful and Unsuccessful Learners of English (Adapted from ey 58) Components of a study planSuccessful learners (5)Unsuccessful learners (5)What55When42How51Why51Answer:Difference between themspecific/concrete/cleargeneral/abstract/vague 3.3 Critical study Critical study comes from your analysis of what you have learned. Your analysis is essentially characterised by critical thinking. As elaborated by Wood, critical thinking does not mean to criticise or find fault. It means to use a variety of mental activities to acquire greater understanding and insight and these mental activities include asking why, making comparisons and contrasts, analyzing causes and effects, or looking for problems and solutions (Wood 305). In a class of study skill training, the teacher presented the research findings as shown in Table 2 and then asked the students to use a pair of adjectives opposite in meaning to describe the major difference between the successful learners study plans and those of unsuccessful learners. It was difficult for the students to indicate the difference with antonymous adjectives. So the teacher had to give one adjective to elicit the other from the students. This shows the demanding nature of critical thinking. 3.4 Creative study Creative study leads you from the stage of receiving and using knowledge to the stage of discovering new knowledge by research started from critical thinking. It is characterised by creative thinking, a combination of divergent thinking and convergent thinking. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, divergent thinking is an activity that leads to new information, or previously undiscovered solutions, rather than to a predetermined, correct solution (Divergent Thinking). It is a kind of mental activity considering different perspectives and discovering the underlying implicit relationships between the factors involved. In foreign language learning, when the learner wants to find out the relationship between forms and function of the target language, he or she will be engaged in discovering how a linguistic form can be used to perform different communicative functions or how a communicative function can be performed with different linguistic forms. Convergent thinking is an activity which resorts to ones abilities to assemble and organize information and tries to reach a defined goal in the achievement of an effective solution to a problem by making use of the components of ones past and present experience in organizing or directing ones response (Convergent Thinking). In the case of using the target language, the learner may select the most appropriate linguistic means from his or her interlinguistic repertoire to perform a certain communication task such as organising his or her arguments in a challenging debate. Receptive studyProductive studyCritical studyCreative studyJunior 1 Junior 2Junior 3Senior 1Senior 2Senior 3College 1College 2Figure 1. The Ever-advancing Integration of Different Types of Study In the problem-solving situation, divergent thinking will result in new information and a number of previously undiscovered solutions. And subsequently, convergent thinking will play its role to analyze and synthesize such newly-acquired information in the context of the existing knowledge and work out one practical solution on the basis of the enriched or restructured knowledge system which integrates the new information with the previously existing knowledge base. Considering the foreign language learning experience as a developmental process, we can reasonably argue that this process is one of the ever-advancing integration of different types of study. (See Figure 1) 4. Promoting dynamic interplay between study and research 4.1 Some possible ways of ELT practice concerning study and research Before we propose the action of promoting dynamic interplay between study and research, we need first to consider three possible ways of ELT practice: 1) study without research, 2) research without study, and 3) study plus research. If our ELT practice is a kind of study without research, it will consequently prevent us from becoming efficient advanced learners and users of the target language. If it is one of research without study, it will subsequently prevent us from achieving greater progress or success in research. Only with an ELT practice in the mutual stimulation of study and research can we eventually become more efficient advanced learners of English and highly successful researchers in English language learning and teaching. 4.2 Two approaches to mutual stimulation between study and research in ELT You may start either with study or with research. Whatever you start with, you are expected to follow the principle Do not forget research while studying and do not abandon study while doing research. This principle suggests two approaches to mutual stimulation between study and research: one is research-based study and the other is study-oriented research. When you are engaged in research-based study, you are advised to take the following guidelines into consideration: (1) Go on independent thinking to find problems whenever you study. (2) Resort to critical thinking to analyse the problem wherever you have one. (3) Start creative thinking to solve the problem however difficult it is. When you are conducting study-oriented research, you will be benefited from the following tips: 1) Return to study when you are not clear about some facts in research. 2) Resume your study when you have no guiding principle in research. 3) Further your study when you have accomplished your research project. 5. Conclusion The above discussion of study and research and the relationship between them is by no means comprehensive but it can serve our purpose to improve ELT practice as a point of departure. The idea of promoting dynamic interplay between study and research is one the author has cherished for a long time and let the in-service teachers of English share when they come to refresh themselves in their further education programmes. The purpose of this paper is to demystify the lofty term research and help our fellow teachers of English to integrate their study and teaching with research. Works Cited Biehler, Robert F., and Jack Snowman. Psychology Applied to Teaching. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. Cohen, Louis, and Lawrence Manion. Research Methods in Education. 4th ed. London: Routledge, 1994. Convergent Thinking. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1996 ed. CD-ROM. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1996. Divergent Thinking. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1996 ed. CD-ROM. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 1996. Hitchcock, Graham, and David Hughes. Research and the Teacher: A Qualitative Introduction to School-Based Research. 2nd ed. London: Routledge, 1995. Hohn, Robert L. Classroom Learning and Teaching. White Plains, NY: Longman, 1995. Howard, George S. Basic Research Methods in the Social Sciences. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1985. Krashen, Stephen D. Application of psycholinguistic research to the classroo Ed. Long, Michael H., and Jack C. Richards. Methodology in TESOL: Book of Reading. New York: Newbury House, 1987. 33-44. Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985. Sternberg, Robert J., and Wendy M. Williams. How to Develop Student Creativity. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1996. Study. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. 2nd ed. New York: Random House, 1987. Wood, Nancy. V. Strategies for College Reading and Thinking. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. ey.     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